What is sprinkler irrigation?

Sprinkler irrigation refers to a method of applying irrigation water through a combination and connection of various pipes and pumps. The water is sprayed into the air with the help of sprinklers that breaks the water molecules into small droplets which fall on the plants and soil. The pump supply system, sprinklers and other related factors are specifically designed for each farm in such a way that the water provided in the irrigation process is evenly distributed and entirely uniform.

Layout and components of a sprinkler system:

A simple and basic sprinkler irrigation system mainly consists of:

  1. Pump unit
  2. Sprinklers
  3. Laterals
  4. Mainlines and sub mainlines if needed.

Advantage of sprinkler irrigation:

• Helps in maintaining crops in a sustainable manner
• Reduces labour and water costs
• Uniform distribution of irrigation water
• Easy instillation and low maintenance costs
• Reduces unwanted water run-off

A sprinkler system generally uses a high-pressure pump and the size of the droplets is based on the efficiency of the nozzles in the sprinklers. This system works very similarly to natural rainfall as the spray heads spread and distribute the water across the entire soil surface and not just target the irrigation to the roots of the plants as done in a drip irrigation system.

What is drip irrigation?

Drip irrigation refers to the common practice of providing a specific area of the plant that are being cultivated with small amounts of water and nutrients at regular intervals of time. This nutrients and water mixture is generally provided directly to the roots area of a plant where the actual water absorption takes place. A drip irrigation system that is well installed and properly working has various benefits that can save farmers a lot of money in the long run and show the return on investments pretty quickly.

Advantage of drip irrigation:

• Reduces labour costs
• Reduces leaching of water and nutrients below the plant roots area
• Reduces unwanted water run-off
• Boosts plant growth
• Prevention of plant diseases by reducing the contact of water with leaves

A drip irrigation system has increased irrigation effectiveness to over 90 percent allowing the waters to receive the right quantity and the exact absorption location that not only boosts plant growth but also ensures that no resources are wasted in this process. There are various components to a drip system that will define it effectiveness and it can vary based on certain external factors that drastically influence the same.

Choosing the right mode of irrigation automation is important as this can help farmers save a lot of unwanted costs by reducing wastages. The right mode of irrigation will not only help farmers but also boost plant growth by creating the perfect environment for the plants to grow in with the right quantity of water which will prevent the case of over flooding or under irrigation. Based on the pros and cons of each system the right irrigation mode can be suggested by our team of highly trained experts.


What is Moisture?

Moisture refers to the presence of a liquid in trace amounts. Generally, moisture is directed with water when small amounts of water may be found in different aspects. Moisture can also vaguely refer to the water vapor present in the air. The tiny droplets of water can be in the air on a surface or in the ground. Moisture can vaguely represent anything that moistens, that is, makes something damp or wet due to fluids in small quantities.

What is humidity?

Humidity specifically refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. If there is a lot of water vapor in the air the humidity levels will be high and if there is very less water vapor in the air the humidity levels will be low. The higher the humidity, the wetter the air feels as naturally, there is more water present.

Relative humidity refers to the amount of water vapor actually present in the air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at the same temperature.

People generally sweat in areas of high humidity as the sweat is not absorbed by the surrounding air since it is already saturated. Humidity also gives rise to mould and can cause malfunction in household items like electronics. Living with humidity can be made easier with the aid of a dehumidifier, which sucks moisture out of the air.

Humidity vs Moisture:

Humidity simply refers to the vapor content measurement when the liquid is in the for of a gas, while moisture refers to the content of the solution when it is in liquid state.

If the air in an environment reaches a state of saturation in humidity which refers to the state in which the air can not absorb any more water in gas state, the water will condense into tiny drops that create mist, fog and clouds which are in the form of moisture.

Humidity is specific only to the relation of the amount of water present in the air while moisture can be a much broader term that refers to the level of liquid present in a solid substance like food items, soil, products etc.

For example: It is generally said that the humidity levels in the climatic conditions of a certain area can be high or low. In such a case the term moisture is not frequently used. However, in case of referring to the dampness of soil, it is commonly said that the moisture level of the soil is high or low and in such a case the term humidity is not used.

Moisture can generally be seen as well as be felt by people as it exists in visible solid substances while humidity can not be seen but can only be felt as it is present in the air.
While the two terms may have a few similarities, they are scientifically as well as grammatically different and can hence not be used interchangeably.

Importance of solar powered automatic irrigation system:

As the world population and food demand is constantly increasing agriculture field farmers are facing many problems in watering their plants to keep their crops green in summer season due to the global water crisis, which makes it extremely difficult for them to meet the total food demand. It’s because they don’t have correct idea about the availability of the sustainable power sources currently available. Even if the power is available, the farmers have to wait until the pitch is properly watered.

Thus, this process restricts them to stop doing other more important tasks. But there is a solution, i.e., automatic solar submersible pump control panel for irrigation. In the trial of solar based plant irrigation using submersible pumps, PV cells are used to generate electricity, which is stored in rechargeable batteries. These batteries produce power for the system operation without any continues energy costs. A submersible pump controller is used to pump a water from a boor well to a storage water tank. Then, the water is drawn by a submersible pump at the slope’s toe, where the installed sprinklers water the crops or plants.

The main goal of this irrigation system is to develop an irrigation system in the field of agriculture by using Solar Energy which is much more suitable than conventional modes of irrigation. This is not only good and beneficial to the environment but is also extremely advantageous to the farmers itself.

These systems work in the sunlight (solar energy based). When sun shines the water pumping process is a sensible way of solar electric power utilization throughout the summer, as the water necessity is the highest. The direct relation between the generation of energy when the sun is at its peak and the requirement for water for the plants at the same time creates a perfect balance for this mode of irrigation. These pumps provide a reliable water source for plantation. For any solar based pumping system, the capacity to drive water is a function of three variable such as power, flow and pressure.

The following are the main components that are used in this automatic solar submersible pump control panel for irrigation

  • Solar Panel: These panels are designed with solar cells composed of semiconductor materials. The main function of Solar panels is to convert solar energy into commonly used electrical energy generally of 12V, which is further used for the rest of the circuit. The number of cells required and their size depends on the rating of the load which is based on various external factors like the size of farming operations. The collection of the right combination and number of solar cells can produce maximum electricity. But the solar panel must place exactly at right angles to the sun rays.
  • The Source: Water sources are available in the form of springs, drilled wells, rivers, ponds, etc. the nearest and most effective source of water can be easily connected to the irrigation system for best results.
  • The Submersible Pump: This solar irrigation system contains a submersible pump, a water tank, an irrigation pump, associated water pumps which are the main components of the actual irrigation process. In the site trial, the submersible pump is kept in a stainless-steel case, which is placed in a well pit at the junction of the open channel and the natural stream course. The pump controller pumps water to the water tank at a particular time period as set in the control unit which can be pre-set for the automation aspect and process of this particular system. This system is designed with 450W of power, which is capable of pumping 2000 litres of water within 60 minutes. This power capacity takes into account the height difference between the water tank and the solar submersible pump if the right equipment’s are installed.
  • The PV Panels: The photo voltaic cells depend on the size of the pump and farming operations. A panel is esteemed in watts of thermal power it can produce. This solar submersible pumping system should be operated with a PV array of capacity in the range of 200 to 500 watts peak, and measured under some standard test conditions for optimum results. A plenty of modules in series & parallel could be used to get the necessary PV power array power o/p. The o/p power of the PV modules which are used in the PV array under standard test conditions should be a min of 74 watts peak. Meeting all these technical requirements will ensure that the Solar powered automatic irrigation system works best even at extreme climatic conditions.
  • Charge Controller: A solar charge controller is an extremely important device in any solar-power irrigation system. It is used to maintain proper charging voltages of the batteries. The charge controller controls current and voltage from the solar panel and charges the battery, and also stops the charging of the battery from over and undercharging conditions. This ensures that damages and accidents are avoided and the entire system functions seamlessly
  • Battery: The Battery is an electric device, that is used to store current which is produced from the solar panel and supplied to the corresponding loads for cases where the solar energy may not be produced as much as required due to external situations. The number of batteries required depend on the load requirement which is based on the size of operations and such factors.
  • Inverter: The main function of the inverter is that it converts the battery’s voltage to AC voltage in order to activate the loads and make the generated energy usable on a commercial scale. Therefore, it helps us to even run many electronic devices, home appliances and computers if installed for domestic gardens. There are numerous types of inverters available in the market today. The characteristics of typical inverters include high switching frequency, high conversion frequency and less harmonic content, and so on. Choosing the right inverter plays a vital role for the farmers needs to be precisely met.

What is soil moisture?

Soil moisture refers to the water content in the soil of a particular area. This can be expressed as volume or weight and is commonly measured in probes. There are various ways that water can enter a field such as artificial irrigation, natural rainfall, runoff, drainage, evaporation and transpiration. These factors can drastically affect the biome present, soil formation, structure, stability and can influence the environment in which the plants are growing. Having the right amount of soil moisture is important so as to ensure photosynthesis and the appropriate turgidity for the plant position. The health of the crops grown is directly related and influenced by the adequate and appropriate supply of moisture and nutrients in the soil.

What is a soil moisture sensor irrigation system?

Supplying water to the plants is of utmost importance and this can directly change the temperature and environment of the plants. The temperature of the plants can be changed by using transpiration methods. Studies show that plants and root systems grow best when they are in moist soil.

A soil moisture sensor is a specially designed sensor used to gauge the volumetric content of water within the soil. As the straight gravimetric dimension of soil moisture needs eliminating, drying, and even certain levels of sample weighting, these sensors measure the volumetric water content not directly but with the help of some other rules of soil like dielectric constant, electrical resistance, otherwise interaction with neutrons, and replacement of the moisture content. These sensors are normally used to check the volumetric water content, while another combination of sensors calculates a new property of moisture within soils.

Measuring soil moisture is very important for agricultural practices as it help farmers to manage their irrigation systems more efficiently. Knowing the exact soil moisture conditions on their fields, not only are farmers able to generally use less water to grow a crop, they are also able to increase yields and the quality of the crop by improved management of soil moisture during critical plant growth stages. This helps in providing the crops the exact amount of water needed and reduces the chances of overflooding or under irrigation.

Relatively cheap and simple devices that do not require a power source are available for checking whether plants have sufficient moisture to thrive for domestic gardeners and small-scale farmers.

Automatic controlled irrigation is the use of soil moisture sensor in the field that helps in collecting or monitoring soil information, field information, and crop growth information, and transmit the monitoring data to the head control centre, and issue corresponding irrigation management instructions to the terminal under the corresponding system software analysis and decisions are taken based on this data provided.

Importance:

The implementation of a scientific automated irrigation system specially designed to meet its exact purpose can save water resources and increase crop yields. The core of the automatic irrigation system is the using a soil moisture sensor to control irrigation. Soil moisture sensor and automatic watering system can minimize water waste which in return saves any unwanted expenditure on water resources. These systems have also shown to reduce energy consumption and labour costs which in turn brings down a lot of overhead expenses for the farmers.

A Smart Irrigation System has a wide scope to automate the complete irrigation system. At Greenly India we are committed to building an IoT-based Irrigation System using up to date technology and latest innovations. Our systems will not only automatically irrigate the water based on the moisture level in the soil but also send the Data to the farmers and users to keep track of the land condition. The System will consist of a water pump which will be used to sprinkle water on the land depending upon the land's environmental condition such as Moisture, Temperature, and Humidity.

Importance of automatic irrigation system using IOT

Agriculture is the major source of income for a majority of the population in India and is major contributor to Indian economy. However, technological involvement and its usability, development have to be grown still and cultivated for agricultural sector in India.

We are the leading manufacturers and distributers for these systems for controlling our garden activity independently from any end of the world, we can monitor Realtime data on the screen of our mobile, plus we can understand various environmental sensors from this tutorial. With the help of IOT, we can control our garden/ farm appliances, so these are some important features of automatic irrigation system using IOT.

IoT is changing the agricultural practices and empowering farmers to fight with the huge difficulties they face. It gives farmers the opportunity to develop themselves and make them tech-savvy by being a driving force in updating the conventional and traditional practices to align with modern day inventions.

There are various advantages to using these systems such as:

• Control the drip irrigation system in an automated fashion, but still, turn on individual zones manually when needed which helps in saving energy and water costs.
• High levels of flexibility and these systems can be adapted regardless of the size of operations or location.
• Be extendable to any number of zones relatively easy.
• Should work Autonomously by sensing soil moisture levels requiring little to no manual labour.
• Should be Inexpensive to install, but must be reliable with low maintenance and repairs costs.

Features of automatic irrigation system using IOT:

To understand the overview of automatic irrigation system using IOT

A completely automated system can perform the following task: It has 2 modes; one is manual and the other is the self-mode. The farmers can choose which mode is suitable for which period of time and choose the mode appropriately.

• In manual mode the farmers can monitor the real-time status of the environment of our garden like its carbon-di-oxide rate, temp, soil density, moisture levels, etc, In this mode, the farmers also can control the appliance on our choices or depending upon the current situations.
• In a self-mode the system will become independent from its owner's operation, it can perform its work on its own, simply it will handle itself Smartly based on the current situation. This is the mode of automation where there is no manual intervention and the working is independently practiced.

What is fertigation?

Fertigation refers to a system that distributes fertilizer evenly to the entire field by attaching the injection tank directly to the sprinkler systems. This is an easy and cost-effective way to apply fertilizers to all the plants. A fertigation system can be applied to a preexisting sprinkler system as well. This process allows a farmer to apply small amounts of fertilizer in each set of fertigation that contributes to a high flexibility in fertigation frequencies overall. The availability of nutrients to the plants is very high and therefore the efficiency of this system is better.

Need for fertigation:

Fertigation also helps in conserving water and reducing pollution and is the most environmentally friendly way to fertilize an area. Using a fertigation system can decrease water consumption by 20- 50 percent and drastically reduce water bills especially in summers. One of the major complaints of using fertilizers in the water run-off and chemicals entering into the drainage systems of cities, lakes and rivers. The use of modern and organic products in combination with micro dosing eliminates these issues as well. As an end result, it has the potential to reduce the quantity of nutrient leaching and any further subsequent ground water leaching. It can be used by large scale as well as small scale farms.

Other uses of fertigation would include administration of herbicides, pesticides, insecticides, fungicides and growth regulators- basically all the nutrients and other essentials required for the proliferation and sustenance of the plant.

In a fertigation system the water, fertilizer placement and application frequencies are managed much more efficiently as compared to conventional and dry modes of applying fertilizers to crops. As a result of this, yields drastically improve and an optimum ionic balance can be achieved in plants. Fertigation is also an effective mode of controlling the timing and placement of fertilizers to root zones of crops and is often considered to be synonymous to nutrient efficiency.

The process of fertigation is commonly and vastly used in commercial agriculture and horticulture. It is also becoming vastly common in landscaping as it is much simpler and more reliable to use.

Advantages of fertigation:

  • Reduction in the amount of grunt work
  • Less raw material consumption
  • Prevention of nutrient washing and environmental pollution
  • An optimum increase in yield obtained and adjustment of pH to ensure complete utilization of nutrients supplied.
  • Worth the investment and shows return on investment quickly
  • Responsible way of fertilization
  • Frequent supply of nutrients that reduces the fluctuation in concentration of soil nutrients
  • Nutrients can be introduced in the soil even when natural conditions will not allow conventional modes to do the same

Disadvantages of the above method are that an intricate knowledge and technical understanding are essential, the high initial cost, and corrosion associated with the use of parts of the machine.

Some of the disadvantages can obviously be eliminated by the usage of corrosion resistant materials and the fact that the return of investment is relatively fast.

Systems that can easily incorporate fertigation:

  1. Drip irrigation: This system is much less wasteful than sprinkler systems as the water and fertilizers are directly provided at the absorption zone of the plant, that is, the roots.
  2. Sprinkler systems: These systems are generally used to increase the efficiency for leafy plants and fruits by boosting the quality of the final produce.

xModern fertigation systems can also be automated with innovative and extensive satellite-based software that helps in pinpointing the variable rate of fertilizer applications.

All systems should be placed on a raised or sealed platform and not in direct contact with the ground. it is important to prevent backflow to avoid the potential risk of contamination in the portable water that is not used for agricultural purposes.

Drip irrigation is the most regularly used means of fertigation, which adds to its effectiveness. The net result of drip irrigation ensures an excellent arrangement of crop and uniform supply of fertilizer.

Types of fertigation:

  1. N Fertigation: This refers to the use of urea that is well suited for injection into micro irrigation systems. Urea is highly soluble and can easily dissolve into non-ionic form so that there is no unwanted reaction with other substances in the irrigation water.
  2. P Fertigation: This refers to the application of phosphorus to irrigation water that can cause precipitation of phosphate salts. Phosphoric acid in combination with ammonium phosphate has proven to be much more suitable for fertigation
  3. K Fertigation: This refers to the application of K Fertilizers that do not cause any precipitation of salts

What is the main fertigation equipment’s?

There are 3 main fertigation equipment’s that aid and ease the entire process namely,

  1. Ventury: This part constructs in the main flow of pipe and causes difference in vacuum that is sufficient to suck fertilizer solutions from an open container into the water flow. It is very easy to handle and is affordable for all scales of operations.
  2. Fertilizer tank: This refers to a tank containing fertilizer solution that is connected to the irrigation pipe ate the supply point.
  3. Fertilizer pump: This refers to a pump that is a standard component of the control head. The fertilizer solution is held in a non-pressurized tank and can be injected into the irrigation water at any ratio.

What is automatic irrigation?

Irrigation refers to the artificial application of water to land or soil that aids in the cultivation of agricultural crops in case of inadequate natural rainfall. A form of automatic irrigation refers to a system where irrigation operations are carried out with little to no manual intervention besides the surveillance of the system. Most modern irrigation systems can be automized with the help of timers, sensors, computers and mechanical appliances. Automation makes the irrigation process much more efficient and workers can concentrate on other important farming tasks. This process has various benefits and positive effects.

The process of distributing water to plants becomes more standardizes and felids or gardens do not have to be constantly controlled by an irrigator. The water is evenly distributed among all plants across the installed area. There are several solutions to create modern-day large-scale systems that allow vast areas to be covered by a single operator.

Sprinklers systems, drip irrigation systems and surface/ sub-surface irrigation systems require pumps and certain specifically designed high-tech components that can be used for large surfaces by skilled operators. However, automation of the irrigation systems can be done on a small scale as well with simple mechanical appliances.

Types of automated irrigation:

  1. Surface irrigation: This is the oldest form of automatic irrigation where the system water moves by following gravity or the slope of the land.
  2. Drip irrigation: This refers to a system where water is delivered to the roots of the plants drop by drop and is extremely water efficient.
  3. Sprinkler irrigation: This refers to an irrigation system where the pipe is set overhead to a central location and water is sprayed through pressure sprinklers or irrigation guns that are also mounted overhead.
  4. Water wheel irrigation: This refers to a type of irrigation where water is sprinkled to the plants in a circular pattern and the water is fed from a pivot point at the center of an arc. Hence this system is also known as center-pivot irrigation.
  5. Micro irrigation: This refers to a system where each plant is adjacent to the pipe where water is distributed at a low pressure. This is a very common and localized irrigation system in India.
  6. Lawn sprinkler irrigation: This refers to a system which consists of one or more zones and capacity water sources leading to the size limitation. These are commonly referred to as permanent sprinklers that are installed mainly in lawns, commercial landscapes, schools, gold courses etc.

Solar Powered Automatic Irrigation Systems:

This refers to the form of using an irrigation where the power used for the process of irrigation is obtained through solar panels which is connected to the power circuit. Solar energy is generated from the solar panels which is used for operating the irrigation pumps. Various sensors and monitors are installed across the entire set up to prevent any damages or accidents due to overheating. This mode of irrigation not only reduces human labor through automation but also reduces energy consumption through the used of solar instillations.

Advantages of irrigation automation:

  • Time saving: Since the process of irrigation reduces and often removes manual labor, the entire irrigation can be completed much faster and more precisely than other traditional modes of irrigation.
  • Reduction in water bill: The irrigation system provides the exact amount of water needed to the plants and this can be pre-decided and any excess wastages can be easily avoided with automatic irrigation
  • Reduction in electricity bill: Out of the various irrigation modes available, choosing the right irrigation technique for the field will not only save water but also reduce the energy consumption during irrigation.
  • Flexible: Irrigation systems that are automated are extremely flexible and can be programmed for the exact farmers needs at all times. Installing sensors and monitors to give information on the levels of water and temperature readings give a clear picture on the exact needs of the crops as well.
  • Scheduled irrigation: Using automatic irrigation systems ensures that mistakes during the irrigation process are avoided and the schedule is followed automatically. Manual monitoring needs to be performed only in filling up the water tank and this gives farmers an added level of comfort by saving their time and energy.
  • Other: Improves standard of living for farmers, prevents deforestation and famines, prevents the growth of weeds, improves soil fertility etc.

Disadvantages of irrigation automation:

Cost: Depending on the size of the area to be covered, irrigation automating systems can vary in each case. Apart from this, certain portions of the lawn/ farm will have to be dug up in order to install the initial pipework to connect the plumbing system to the automated irrigation system.
Repairs and maintenance: In case of any repairs and maintenance work, the regular farming activities will have to be paused and the land will have to be repaired post this. Its best to install irrigation automation systems before installing sod or performing any extensive landscaping as some of it may be torn apart and will require repairs post irrigation instalment. This may add to farmers cost and can be easily avoided if planned beforehand and properly.
Natural factors: Even the most advanced irrigation systems can face certain disruptions due to natural calamities like hurricanes, wind storms and sand storms. These factors can wreak havoc on the entire irrigation system and cause the water direction to change and be in effective. Underground pests and insects can damage the water delivery systems below ground level resulting in water pooling or broken parts of the system. The repairs cost to fox such damages is drastically higher as compared to fixing or replacing a garden hose.

There are various types of automatic irrigation system and each type comes with its own set of pros and cons. Its best to get in touch with our team of highly trained members who can analyse and interpret the exact farming and farmers needs and provide the right type of irrigation automation system to suit the needs. This will not only increase farming efficiency but also help save costs and expenses in the long run.

What is water management?
Water management refers to the control and movement of water resources to reduce any damage to life and property and helps in maximizing the balance of water use. Good water management involves the proper installation and maintenance of dams and levees that help in the prevention of flooding and any damage caused due to the same.
Effective water management also involves drainage management that includes water budgeting and analysis of both surface and sub-surface systems. Other factors that influence the sufficient and free flow of water are ground water withdrawal rates and budgeted allocation of water for different purposes in appropriate quantities.

What is sustainable water management?
Sustainable water management refers to the process of using water in a method that meets the current demand for water without affecting the needs of future generations ecologically, socially and economically. Effective sustainable water management requires water to be over looked from judicial boundaries for its immediate supply of operations and managing water collaboratively as well as seeking resilient regional solutions that reduce risks to a large extent.
Sustainable water management helps a nation become self sufficient for its water needs which ensures that there is enough water to meet various functions on all levels; domestic, commercial as well as industrial.
Achieving sustainable water management require a holistic approach in creating the right technical, environmental, social and economic situation for the issues to be addressed.
On a global scale, having the right type of sustainable water systems will be able to provide every individual easy and affordable access to their required quantity of water in an economic manner.
Water resources can be effectively planned and wastewater systems can be installed to manage the complete operations and proper infrastructure of water resource demands in every locality.

Reasons for sustainable water conservation:

  1. Effective water management minimizes the effects of droughts and water shortages by reducing the amount of water used. Even though the world is facing a water crisis with a depletion in fresh water sources, the water supply stays constant. This causes immense pressure on the water bodies and sustainable water management can be a solution to all these problems.
  2. Sustainable water management also helps in resolving political conflicts as excess water demand increases water costs which may causes political unrest for releasing dam water from one state to flow into another.
  3. It also ensures that water is available for recreational purposes where freshwater is used for lawns, plantations, gardens as well as luxury options of swimming pools, spas and other such activities. Employing sustainable water management now can help preserve these activities for future generations.

Advantages of sustainable water management:
• Optimizing economic, environmental and social benefits
• Reduces water related costs
• Setting goals for selecting projects through a transparent and inclusive process
• Helps in eliminating water wastes
• Realizing consistency across a range of alternatives that balance utility as well as the pre set goals.
• Maintains water management infrastructure for efficient operations
• Enhancing the long term technical and financial capacity of the water management.
• Sustainable for the long-term maintenance of the environment
• Provides irrigation control based on weather that saves water usage and helps in cost cutting for farmers.
• Technological development in water management field.

What is a solar powered automatic irrigation system?
A solar powered automatic irrigation system refers to the combination of using solar energy to operate irrigation systems automatically. The irrigation system is entirely operated from solar energy instead of commercial energy that will help in reducing electric costs while monitoring the irrigation and water levels of soil. The main objective is to advance irrigation systems using technological developments in the solar energy field.

Relation between solar energy and irrigation systems:
In summers, when the water requirement for plants is maximum, the solar energy produced is also at its peak due to the thermal energy. Hence a direct relationship is formed between the two that can be used to automate and irrigate fields. Solar powered irrigation systems basically function on two main functions namely, power and pressure. The scarcity in water and electric crisis are both dealt with creating a sustainable mode of farming.

Advantages of using a Solar powered irrigation system:
• Helps in preventing water wastage and reduces water consumption through automation
• Reduces, if not negates the use of commercial energy by replacing it with solar energy
• Reduction in water and electricity bills
• Can easily be integrated into fields regardless of the size of operations
• Reduces labor usage and costs
• Automated systems can be converted to manual systems whenever needed as per the requirement of farmers
• Creates sustainable farming techniques
• Suitable for all climatic conditions
• Can be integrated with all irrigation modes
• Chance for further advancement and technological development

Components of a Solar powered irrigation system:

  1. Solar Panels: Solar panels are designed to convert solar energy into electrical energy with the help of conducting and semi-conducting materials. The solar panels are strategically placed to face maximum sunlight at all possible times.
  2. PV Panels: Photovoltaic panel cells depend on the size of water pumps that are installed. The panel values in the power it can generate.
  3. Water source: The sources of water for each field is vast and varies from springs and ponds to rivers and wells.
  4. Battery: The battery refers to an electric device that is used to store the solar energy and transfer it to the pumps as and when it is needed. The usage of batteries also depends on load requirements.
  5. Inverter: The primary objective of an inverter is to convert the voltage of the battery into AC Voltage to start the loads. This helps in actually turning on and off the irrigation systems.
  6. Charge Controller: this is an important device that is used to maintain the exact charging voltage levels of the batteries and the current from the solar panels. It prevents a case of over-charging of the batteries in high voltage situations which can lead to serious damages if not practiced.
  7. Others: Water sensor module, Push buttons, cables and connectors, IC sockets, Capacitators and resistors.

Combining the use of solar energy and irrigation systems is an extremely strategic move that will profit farmers drastically if implemented properly. Its best to seek professional advice on this in order to arrive at the exact system for both aspects in solar based irrigation to get the highest return of investment.

What is sustainable agriculture?
Sustainable agriculture refers to a farming practice using sustainable modes that help in meeting the demand for the produce while keeping in mind the environmental needs and understanding the preservation of the eco system. Sustainable farming gives the agricultural industry various flexible options that can be implemented in improving the environmental positivity and controlling the environmental footprint.
Sustainability can be simply understood as the process of meeting the current needs without compromising on the future generations ability to meet their needs.
Sustainable agriculture helps in satisfying the human consumption needs while enhancing the environmental quality and preserving natural resources at the same time. It helps in the optimum use of non-renewable resources and integrate the right biological controls for optimum production cycles. This not only enhances the quality of living for famers and the society as a whole but also helps in sustaining the economic viability of various agricultural practices.

Why is sustainable agriculture important?
Various environmental issues are pertaining and directly related to the agricultural industry which can spoil the entire habitable environment if not addressed properly and swiftly. To be confirmed as sustainable, the agricultural practices should be integrated socially, environmentally as well as economically.

Goals of sustainable agriculture:
The most common goals of sustainable agriculture are to maintain and improve environment health, economic standards, farming profits and socio-economic equity. Shifting from traditional agriculture to sustainable agriculture is a long process. It is irrational to expect farmers to become entirely sustainable with immediate results. The motive of sustainable agriculture should be in mind of all the stakeholders of the agricultural industry like farmers, wholesalers, governments, consumers etc.
Sustainable agriculture also helps in creating a level of social awareness and inclusion between all the affected parties and helps in creating a constructive community that works towards the same goals.

Issues that call for a need of sustainable agriculture:

  1. Environment issues: The traditional modes of agricultural practices often add pressure to the already depleting natural resources. Using chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides can show results in the short-term but are extremely harmful for the environment in the long run. These chemicals used not only deplete the quality of soil, but their run off is often deposited in water bodies that pollutes another resource. Contemporary farming methods rely on the production of a few crops primarily. Crop rotation is not focused on and can cause a hinderance in the availability of produce to meet demand.
  2. Social and economic issues: Agricultural development is considered to be a driving force in reduction of poverty. However, the prevailing methods of agriculture are not sustainable and actually cause added problems to an economy. With a continuous increase in population and food demand, if the agricultural industry does not adapt to sustainable tools, it will be next to impossible to have enough supply in the long run.

There are various steps that are being taken to make the agricultural industry mores sustainable that are becoming more and more popular across the globe.

What is digital farming?
Digital farming also known as digital agriculture refers to the use of digital technology to integrate agricultural production from the fields of production to the final consumer. This includes technologies that assist the agricultural sector with tools and developments that provide information to easy the decision-making process by taking informed decisions and improve agricultural productivity. In a constantly changing external environment farmers need to innovate and maintain their practices and constantly improve their efficiency to keep up with rising demand. Digital technologies have the capacity to assist farmers to meet the challenges posed by the industry and take advantage of opportunities for growth.

Digital agriculture in India:
The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare in India tries to increase farmer awareness, knowledge and efficiency. The final goal of this Ministry is to increase the farmers income by following the suggestions of the Doubling Farmers Income (DFI) committee and creating a Digital Agriculture Division specially for this purpose.
A comprehensive ICT strategy has been developed by the Ministry to reach out to farmers easily and in the planning and monitoring of schemes so that any government level decisions can be taken faster and farmers can see their benefits sooner. This can easily be accessed via smartphones, digital appliances, SMS advisories and a free Kisan Call Center to assist farmers.
The National e-governance Plan in Agriculture was launched in 7 states- Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh to achieve rapid development in India with the use of Information and Communication Technology by providing timely information for any agricultural queries to farmers.
As a part of this scheme the government has developed a one stop window- farmers portal for dissemination of information on various different agricultural matters like seed variations, pests’ control, plant diseases etc. the department has also created a SMS Portal for assisting the farmers on agricultural matters via SMS options.
Various mobile apps like Kisan Suvidha, which was launched in 2016 are also actively available to provide information to farmers on important factors that can affect their production. The app is extremely successful reaching over 13 lakh farmers and assisting them on a regular basis.
Precision agriculture is also picking up in the Indian agricultural landscape where inputs are utilized in the exact and precise format to increase yields as compared to traditional methods. Agricultural biotechnology includes a wide range of tools like traditional breeding techniques that can alter the living organisms partially, improve plant quality and also develop micro-organisms in a controlled environment for certain specific agricultural practices.
The agricultural sector plays a vital role in the Indian economy and accounts to almost 17 percent of the Gross Value Added in the country. The sector faces major challenges that can be combated by improving the technology used for the same. It helps in developing the entire industry and creates a positive environment for the famers to work in. From assisting farmers in installing better technology in the fields of production to equipping them with options of Net Banking, the Indian digital agriculture has achieved many milestones by itself.

What is the need for sustainable agriculture?
Sustainable agriculture is created with the motive to preserve the environment and create a life for all living beings in a balance. It benefits the environment by maintain soil quality, reducing water usage and minimizing soil erosion. There are various trends in sustainable agricultural practices that helps in preserving the environment from the consumers side, like veganism.

Challenges faced by sustainable agriculture:
Sustainable agriculture not only tries to conserve natural resources but also tries to develop them for future generations and their survival. However, this motive should align with the current livelihoods and should not be limited to an indicator of income levels but must also include public health concerns, social standard of living and education level in the country.
Improving agricultural productivity while maintaining all natural resources is a prerequisite for sustainable farmers. Regardless of the scale of operations, even small farmers can shift to sustainable farming that will create a huge accumulated impact on a global scale.
Land and water management: Rural farmers are heavily dependent on the conditions of soil and water bodies in and around their surroundings. This means that they are dependent on the natural eco system and are ironically the biggest cause of pollution to the resources through dumping and misuse. The land and water resources are under extreme pressure and are constantly deteriorating. Issues like deforestation, overgrazing, intensive cultivation have all caused an imbalance in the natural ecosystem. This has drastically reduced the quality and quantity of available natural resources and increased the volatility and scarcity of the same.

Land management systems: There are five main roads of change in cultivation land that developed countries have reflected upon to increase sustainability:

  1. Expanding and intensifying irrigated agriculture
  2. Intensifying marginal land with high population density
  3. Higher quality of rainfed lands
  4. Increase in urban agriculture
  5. Expand agricultural practices to lesser populated lands as well

These practices allow agricultural practiced to be completely independent from each other where the risks and resources associated with each is unique and the available opportunities for diversification and integration improve the overall usage and quality of land.
Water management: there is a vast increase in demand for clean water that is spread across both rural and urban areas for various purposes. Big corporations are also under competition to choose between the use of available water sources for consumption or other activities like developing hydropower plants and irrigation units etc. As the pressure on water sources increase, it not only degrades the quality but also raises serious health and environmental concerns that must be dealt with appropriately.
Land users can also enhance a variety of environmental services that range from carbon sequestration to regulating hydrological flows. All practices no matter how minute help in contributing to the process of preserving the natural biodiversity. The failure of previous conventional conservation methods can be attributed to poor and inappropriate techniques that were not compatible with the prevailing conditions. However, shifting focus now on stopping soil erosion, increasing soil productivity and developing other resources is of prime focus in sustainable agriculture.

Our company’s main objective is to provide a complete water management automation system for the domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors.
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